blank

Can a Misdemeanor Conviction for Driving While Impaired Be Expunged?

linkedin
Share on Google+
Share on Reddit
Share on Tumblr
Download PDF

I have been working on a theory of everything . . . for expunctions. It’s a small corner of the criminal justice universe, but a critical one for people with past convictions. The subject can be maddeningly complex, at times a seemingly impenetrable black hole. I have been trying to master the mysteries of our expunction statutes in updating my 2012 Guide to Relief from a Criminal Conviction (which you can find here, but beware of subsequent changes in the law).

Without further physics puns, here’s one of the questions I’ve looked at: Can a person expunge a misdemeanor conviction under G.S. 15A-145.5 for driving while impaired (DWI)? As the statute is currently worded, the answer is yes.

Enacted in 2012, G.S. 15A-145.5 allows for the expunction of older convictions for “nonviolent” misdemeanors and felonies. The meaning of a “nonviolent” offense is determined by what it is not. G.S. 15A-145.5(a) defines an offense as “nonviolent” if it is not a Class A through G felony, a Class A1 misdemeanor, or one of a number of offenses specified in the statute, such as an offense requiring sex offender registration. Consequently, Class H and I felonies and Class 1 through 3 misdemeanors can be expunged as long as they are not among the offenses specifically excluded from relief. See generally Kyprianides v. Martin, ___ N.C. App. ___, 763 S.E.2d 17 (2014) (unpublished) (finding that because conviction for misdemeanor cruelty to animals was not Class A1 misdemeanor and did not fall into excluded categories, it could be expunged under G.S. 15A-145.5).

A misdemeanor DWI conviction is not on the list of excluded offenses. The determinative question then is whether a DWI is a Class 1 misdemeanor or lower. Unlike most misdemeanors, a DWI does not have a specific classification, but in other contexts the North Carolina courts have treated it as a Class 1 misdemeanor. See State v. Armstrong, 203 N.C. App. 399 (2010); State v. Gregory, 154 N.C. App. 718 (2002). Under these decisions, a DWI would be eligible for expunction under G.S. 15A-145.5 if the petitioner meets the other statutory conditions. (Note that Gregory, on which Armstrong relies, was decided before cases holding that an offense’s maximum sentence is determined by the maximum sentence that the particular defendant could receive, not the maximum for the offense generally. See Blakely v. Washington, 542 U.S. 296 (2004). A DWI punished at Levels Three, Four, or Five carries a maximum sentence from sixty days to six months and might be considered a Class 2 misdemeanor. See G.S.14-3(a) (offense without specific classification is considered Class 2 misdemeanor if maximum punishment is more than thirty days and not more than six months).)

Only convictions that are at least fifteen years old may be expunged under G.S. 15A-145.5, a far longer waiting period than for other expunctions under North Carolina law. The length of this waiting period limits the effect of an expunction on a later DWI prosecution. A fifteen-year-old DWI conviction cannot be used as the basis for a felony prosecution of habitual DWI or as a grossly aggravating factor in a misdemeanor DWI prosecution because the applicable statutes set a shorter “look-back” period for prior convictions. See G.S. 20-138.5 (for habitual DWI, look-back period is ten years); G.S. 20-179(c)(1) (for grossly aggravating factor, look-back period is seven years). An expunction would limit use of a prior DWI conviction as a regular aggravating factor, which affects whether a person receives a Level Three, Four, or Five punishment for a misdemeanor. See G.S. 20-179(d)(5) (for regular aggravating factor, prior DWI conviction may be more than seven years old).

G.S. 15A-145.5 also differs from most other expunction statutes in that it appears to give the court some discretion. Most expunction statutes provide that the court “shall” or “must” grant an expunction petition if the court finds that all of the statutory requirements have been met. G.S. 15A-145.5(c) states that the court “may” grant an expunction if the statutory requirements are satisfied. The statute does not specify the possible grounds for denial beyond the statutory requirements, but an order denying a petition must include a finding “as to the reason for the denial.”

A pending House bill, H 273, would revise G.S. 15A-145.5, among other statutes, to disallow expunctions of DWI convictions regardless of their age. The bill, which would apply to petitions filed or pending on or after July 1, 2015, has passed the House and is before the Senate. Two bills introduced in the Senate, S 362 and S 626, would shorten the waiting period to five years for expunction of a misdemeanor under G.S. 15A-145.5. The Senate bills would not change the current treatment of DWI convictions and thus would have the effect of allowing expunctions of DWI convictions before the end of the look-back periods discussed above. These bills did not pass the Senate before the crossover deadline but might be taken into account when the House bill is considered.

Another issue concerns the potential treatment of a DWI sentenced at Aggravated Level One, which carries a sentence of up to three years. See G.S. 20-179(f3). Although the maximum sentence is beyond the typical outer limit for misdemeanors (two years), current law may treat the offense as  a Class 1 misdemeanor. The pending bills do not differentiate among the different DWI levels.

In future posts I will address other common expunction questions as well as any changes enacted by the General Assembly.

11 comments on “Can a Misdemeanor Conviction for Driving While Impaired Be Expunged?

  1. So a Level 4 DWI in 2007 MAY be expungable ? And will that take it off the driving record! Im
    Not quite understanding all this. If someone could clarify, this would actually change my life AND finally allow me to enter Criminal Justice Field and use my degree I worked my butt off for! So is it possible to remove this from my driving record.. The criminal record really isn’t the problem. The DRIVING RECORD is! PLEASE LET ME KNOW. My future depends on it. Trust me Im not being overly dramatic, if you knew my struggles and the fact I been rejected because I have an underage out of state DWI in 1998 & DWI in 2007 here in NC… I can’t work! One HAS to come off my driving record in order to be employable by the State of NC. Can not have two in lifetime!

  2. Your research may have changed my life! If this is possible. I was very close to giving up!! But if there is ANY CHANCE to remove one .. The 1998 DWI (underage) is from NJ and not criminal. I NEED one gone. State of NJ says that it can never be removed from driving record. But what about NC? If its removable from criminal, hopefully that also means driving record! I will say a prayer. Four months I been working on this… Hopefully, you may have found the light at the end of the tunnel for me… Please. Any help is much appreciated..

  3. Assuming the Governor signs House Bill 273, passed by the General Assembly on July 2, 2015, with only a single negative vote, the answer will be a definitive “No” effective Dec. 1, 2015.
    Section 2 of the Bill amends G.S. 15A-145, the expunction statute, to provide that “Nothing in this section shall be interpreted to allow the expunction of any offense involving impaired driving as defined in G.S. 20-4.01(24a).”
    Section 6 of the Bill states that Section 2 becomes effective December 1, 2015, and applies “to petitions pending on or after that date.”
    Obviously, the window of opportunity is closing very quickly.

  4. […] The change is effective for petitions filed or pending on or after December 1, 2015. So if you are eligible for such an expunction, your window of opportunity is closing fast.  Read on to find about the other changes S.L. […]

  5. When pursuing and expunction pursuant to 15A-145.5, does a subsequent DWI conviction bar one from getting their record expunged or is the subsequent DWI conviction considered a traffic violation in the context of 15A-145.5(c)?

  6. I was given a citation for animal cruelty….I had ran in the store for less than 5 minutes with 4 windows open and the sunroof open. An employee leaving the store when I walked in called police…they listed it as an arrest but was never taken into custody or anything. When I went to court it was dismissed with out case ever being heard. But now it shows on my crimanal record …is this something I can get expunged off my record? It has already cost me a job due to the fact I would be working with animals. Thank you.

  7. The cost of fighting DWI and DUI charges an their resulting penalties are high consequences already. For one-time DUI or DWI offense charges that did not involve an accident or injuries, it is not unreasonable to have the DUI expunged after a certain amount of time.

  8. I have two pending dwis and im trying to join the military. In order for me to do that i need to get one dwi espunged. Can i get one off before the conviction?

    • If may be possible, and only a local DWI or DUI lawyer can know for sure after being able to review the case details. This is also much like how the attorney will build a defense for how to fight and beat a DWI charge soon after an arrest has happened.

  9. […] still a chance that you may be denied if you qualify for expunction. However, if you have only one misdemeanor DWI on your record, you may be able to have the conviction sealed from the general […]

  10. I was convicted of 3 DUI’s in a short period back in 1983. I have not been able to get my license back because I do not have money to buy a car to put machine on. I have not had any tickets in 35 years. Is it possible that I could get 1 DUI expunged so my license could be reinstated as they would not have been permanently revoked with only 2 DUI’s

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.