Deferred Prosecution Probation

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Under G.S. 15A-1341(a1), certain defendants may, with court approval, be placed on probation pursuant to a deferred prosecution agreement. To be eligible for this type of deferred prosecution the defendant must have been charged with a Class H or I felony or a misdemeanor, and the court must make findings that:

  • Prosecution has been deferred pursuant to a written agreement, with approval of the court, for the purpose of allowing the defendant to demonstrate good conduct;
  • Each known victim of the crime has been notified of the arrangement by subpoena or certified mail and has been given an opportunity to be heard;
  • The defendant has not been convicted of any felony or of any misdemeanor involving moral turpitude;
  • The defendant states under oath that he or she has not previously been placed on probation; and
  • The defendant is unlikely to commit another offense other than a Class 3 misdemeanor.

Form AOC-CR-610 guides the court through the requisite findings. The longest permissible term of probation for a deferred prosecution case is two years instead of the usual five. G.S. 15A-1342(a). If the defendant completes the deferred prosecution probation term or it is terminated early by the court, the defendant is immune from prosecution on the deferred charges. G.S. 15A-1342(i).

Prosecutors are also free to enter into non-statutory deferred prosecution agreements with defendants, and my sense is that many do (comments welcome on that front). Non-statutory arrangements may not, however, include supervision by the Division of Community Corrections. State v. Gravette, 327 N.C. 114 (1990).

Based on what I’ve heard, practices vary when a deferred prosecution probationer is alleged to have violated the conditions of his or her supervision. In some districts the alleged violation is reported to the court for a hearing; in others, the defendant is referred directly to the district attorney for prosecution. Changes made to the law in 2009 (S.L. 2009-372) helped clear up what ought to happen. Under the new law, violations of the term of a deferred prosecution must be reported to the court as they are in any ordinary probation case. G.S. 15A-1342(a1). A parallel change in G.S. 15A-1344 makes clear that all probationers must receive notice and a hearing under G.S. 15A-1345 before their probation may be revoked. The change corrected what had previously been a disconnect between the first clause of the sentence in G.S. 15A-1344(d) that began “[a] convicted defendant” and the later reference in the same sentence to “charges as to which prosecution has been deferred”—if charges were “deferred,” we wouldn’t be dealing with a “convicted defendant.” The change applies to hearings held on or after December 1, 2009.

With these changes in mind, deferred prosecution probation matters should be handled just like regular, post-conviction probation cases when it comes to extension, modification, and revocation. That’s what the court of appeals said about cases supervised under G.S. 90-96 in State v. Burns, 171 N.C. App. 759 (2005) (“In the absence of a provision to the contrary, and except where specifically excluded, the general probation provisions found in Article 82 of Chapter 15A apply to probation imposed under [G.S.] 90-96.”), and it seems like the same rationale would apply here.

18 comments on “Deferred Prosecution Probation

  1. Here in Union County the D.A. has always handled any noncompliance issues in reference to Deferred Prosecution cases. If the offender failed to comply a letter was sent to the D.A. addessing the noncompliance issues. In turn, the D.A. would make a decision as to whether the offender would be returned to court or not. The D.A.’s Administrative Assistant has been responsible for this process. With the new law changes, more responsiblilty is placed on the Probation Officers. The Probation officer is responsible for individuals placed on Deferred Prosecution from the begining of the case to the end of supervision of the case. Therefore the officer is responsible for supervision throughout the term. I believe this will give DCC more control over these cases by allowing the officer to address consequences to noncompliance issues and not just send the case back to the D.A. It will also allow the officer to address the courts directly and explain face to face any issues in these cases.

  2. Jamie – Just wanted to thank you for all your many posts. This one and all the other many posts that I have stumbled upon that held some answers, no matter how small, are greatly appreciated and Always helpful and easily searchable. Thanks again for the assistance, really helps as a young attorney.

  3. My son received a deferred prosecution for intent to distribute drugs and was placed on probation. He completed his probation a couple of months ago and has stayed out of trouble. What is the procedure for having that expunged from his record now and can I help him with it or is it a matter that must be exercised by an attorney? Thanks much for you willingness to share your knowledge and expertise.

    • In order to get the proper forms filed and get before a judge to have the charges, which were held in abeyance, dismissed and the record expunged, you have to hire a lawyer. This is not fair as the statues call for the dismissal after completion of all requirements, but the system is set up so that you have to use specific forms and get a hearing, which a pro se litigant will find virtually impossible. So, poor people who have kept their end of the bargain are left with a record until they can afford a lawyer to force the court to honor it’s bargain. DA’s will not cooperate, their job is to convict you only, and clerks, by law, will not provide the forms required. Not right in any sense.There should be an automatic procedure for the state to keep it’s promise once conditions have been met..after all, the case is not really closed until all aspects of the agreement have been honored.

  4. I only have one question? When you say that a defendant can’t get defferred prosecution if they have previously been on probation before, mean someone who had been on probation as a juvenile more than ten years ago could not be eligible? I have a family member that has charges and has no record, except traffic violations. They were on probation when they were 12-13 years old. And now being in their 30s, defferred prosecution could be a good thing for them if they could get it.

    • Is there an answer to Jeremy S’s question. I have looked into it and cannot find a clear answer in the statutes.

  5. Hi Mr. Markham,

    Do you happen to know the answer to Jeremy’s question above? I know someone in the exact same situation and would appreciate any info you could proffer.


    • John dough: I do not think juvenile probation would disqualify a person from a deferred prosecution under G.S. 15A-1341(a1). The fact of the prior juvenile probation could factor into the prosecutor’s decision to offer the deferral, but I don’t view it as an absolute bar. Sorry for the delayed response.

      • Thank you for the response. This whole DV system is completely biased against the “defendant”. I understand the necessity for this legislation, but it has gone too far; such that there is not one shred of fairness for those accused and innocent of DV.

  6. my son recently died in a wreck and the investigative finding are being labeled as street competition.(he was the driver)the passengeer in my sons vehicle had stopped a friend of his on the road and asked “when we gonna line em up?” Thsi same passenger was involved in a street racing accident 15 months ago that resulted in the deaths of 2 other teens. Again he was the passenger but also instigated that race.(he was the one who counted down the race in teh first accident) He was charged with aiding and abetting a prearranged street competition in my son’s accident. I fully acknowledge taht my son was driving and that he is responsible for his actions. That being said anyone who knows my son can attest to the fact that this would have been totally out of character for him. The DA wants us to consider offering a derferred prosecution to my son’s passenger. I feel that something needs to be done about this kid and that a deferred prosecution is not going to send this kid a messgae at all. I would almost rather take my chances and make him sit through a trial. Thoughts?

    • First of all, I’m sorry for your loss!! I read about this young man and enough is enough,your family deserve some peace of mind that your son didn’t just die, his life matter!!! So stick to what your heart tells you and stop this from happening again to another family, 3 people had to die and he still walks free??? No my thoughts!! Many prayers!

  7. I am Currently on Deferred Prosecution, I was put on for Obtain prop by false coin?? not sure lol what happen was mother got a check in mail and said it was a tax check and that she put it in my name this year so I was like ok, Well she takes me to this guy that sells scooters and say’s he will cash it I was like ok cool and I wanted a scooter anyways, the check was for $3200 I bought the scooter and got the rest in cash which was $1700, Few days later Guy comes up and say’s the check was FAKE and so I am freaking out like holy crap, (if you haven’t realized by now my mother is a straight crook been in an out of jail) So my two years of probation is up and all the restitution has been paid back to the guy, the only thing I owe is probation fees, court costs, etc. My question is can I get this taken care of and dismissed since the guy has been paid back, I will be getting a Lawyer of course but I was wondering what your thoughts were

    • Also What I owe total is around $1500, Which I do not have the money :(

      • While full restitution to the victim is certainly a plus in your favor, the fees you owe are mandatory, and the judge can extend your probation to pay them. You will be violated for non-payment and it is up to you to convince the DA and the court that you are destitute and have no way to pay the fees. the court may ” remit ” the remaining fee’s if it wants to, but without your probation officer and the DA in agreement you have a slim chance. The burden of proving the inability to pay, and thus the complete lack of ” willfullness ” in non-paymet, is up to you. They cannot violate you if you are literally unable to pay now or in the foreseeable future, and if your probation was completed without incident and all that remains is fee’s you have a chance..but courts are loath to forgive fees if there is any chance of you repaying..good luck.

        • I am currently dealing with the exact same situation expect the check was 7,000+ and I went to cash it at a place (Check Cashers or something) who had my personal identification on file (no bank account at the time). I’m half a year in but I want to turn my mom and whoever helped her in. I think she has the envelope it arrived in or that her crook friend gave to her but the rest is basically on my ass for not giving her up. Any GOOD advice is appreciated.

  8. s there any way to lessen a gs 14-72(a) shoplifting charge?  What will happen usually?  This is a first offense.  I do not have a record.  I would like to keep it that way.  They said an $87 amount but the officer noticed electronics on the reciept, which is not correct, there werent any.  What should I do?  I will never do this again and never have.  I am under a lot of stress and had a lapse of judgement or something crazy.  I am so disgusted and disappointed with myself.  I don’t know what to do. 

  9. I was told in court i was getting a deferred judgment and signed the paper and now im at the point where im getting ready To come off probation and my officer is saying it doesnt look like i have a deferred judgment…what do i do

    • Hey, I’m Patrice from Washington, N.C. I’m in the same exact situation. Due to get off April 8. You got me nervous! Did you violate, or do something wrong? We need to talk, please respond.

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